Studio dei metodi di valutazione della pericolosità associata ai "debris flow" in ambiente alpino

Mammoliti, Maria (2011) Studio dei metodi di valutazione della pericolosità associata ai "debris flow" in ambiente alpino , [Dissertation thesis], Alma Mater Studiorum Università di Bologna. Dottorato di ricerca in Scienze della terra, 23 Ciclo. DOI 10.6092/unibo/amsdottorato/3861.
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The present work concerns with the study of debris flows and, in particular, with the related hazard in the Alpine Environment. During the last years several methodologies have been developed to evaluate hazard associated to such a complex phenomenon, whose velocity, impacting force and inappropriate temporal prediction are responsible of the related high hazard level. This research focuses its attention on the depositional phase of debris flows through the application of a numerical model (DFlowz), and on hazard evaluation related to watersheds morphometric, morphological and geological characterization. The main aims are to test the validity of DFlowz simulations and assess sources of errors in order to understand how the empirical uncertainties influence the predictions; on the other side the research concerns with the possibility of performing hazard analysis starting from the identification of susceptible debris flow catchments and definition of their activity level. 25 well documented debris flow events have been back analyzed with the model DFlowz (Berti and Simoni, 2007): derived form the implementation of the empirical relations between event volume and planimetric and cross section inundated areas, the code allows to delineate areas affected by an event by taking into account information about volume, preferential flow path and digital elevation model (DEM) of fan area. The analysis uses an objective methodology for evaluating the accuracy of the prediction and involve the calibration of the model based on factors describing the uncertainty associated to the semi empirical relationships. The general assumptions on which the model is based have been verified although the predictive capabilities are influenced by the uncertainties of the empirical scaling relationships, which have to be necessarily taken into account and depend mostly on errors concerning deposited volume estimation. In addition, in order to test prediction capabilities of physical-based models, some events have been simulated through the use of RAMMS (RApid Mass MovementS). The model, which has been developed by the Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research (WSL) in Birmensdorf and the Swiss Federal Institute for Snow and Avalanche Research (SLF) takes into account a one-phase approach based on Voellmy rheology (Voellmy, 1955; Salm et al., 1990). The input file combines the total volume of the debris flow located in a release area with a mean depth. The model predicts the affected area, the maximum depth and the flow velocity in each cell of the input DTM. Relatively to hazard analysis related to watersheds characterization, the database collected by the Alto Adige Province represents an opportunity to examine debris-flow sediment dynamics at the regional scale and analyze lithologic controls. With the aim of advancing current understandings about debris flow, this study focuses on 82 events in order to characterize the topographic conditions associated with their initiation , transportation and deposition, seasonal patterns of occurrence and examine the role played by bedrock geology on sediment transfer.

Tipologia del documento
Tesi di dottorato
Mammoliti, Maria
Dottorato di ricerca
Scuola di dottorato
Scienze della terra e dell'ambiente
Settore disciplinare
Settore concorsuale
Parole chiave
debris flow modellazione numerica dinamica dei sedimenti
Data di discussione
27 Aprile 2011

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