Environmental weathering of natural and artificial stones used in historical architecture: influence of microstructure and new restoration methods

Sassoni, Enrico (2011) Environmental weathering of natural and artificial stones used in historical architecture: influence of microstructure and new restoration methods, [Dissertation thesis], Alma Mater Studiorum Università di Bologna. Dottorato di ricerca in Ingegneria dei materiali, 23 Ciclo.
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For some study cases (the Cathedral of Modena, Italy, XII-XIV century; the Ducal Palace in Mantua, Italy, XVI century; the church of San Francesco in Fano, Italy, XIV-XIX century), considered as representative of the use of natural and artificial stones in historical architecture, the complex interaction between environ-mental aggressiveness, materials’ microstructural characteristics and degradation was investigated. From the results of such analyses, it was found that materials microstructure plays a fundamental role in the actual extent to which weathering mechanisms affect natural and artificial stones. Consequently, the need of taking into account the important role of material microstructure, when evaluating the environmental aggressiveness to natural and artificial stones, was highlighted. Therefore, a possible quantification of the role of microstructure on the resistance to environmental attack was investigated. By exposing stone samples, with significantly different microstructural features, to slightly acidic aqueous solutions, simulating clean and acid rain, a good correlation between weight losses and the product of carbonate content and specific surface area (defined as the “vulnerable specific surface area”) was found. Alongside the evaluation of stone vulnerability, the development of a new consolidant for weathered carbonate stones was undertaken. The use of hydroxya-patite, formed by reacting the calcite of the stone with an aqueous solution of di-ammonium hydrogen phosphate, was found to be a promising consolidating tech-nique for carbonates stones. Indeed, significant increases in the mechanical prop-erties can be achieved after the treatment, which has the advantage of simply con-sisting in a non-hazardous aqueous solution, able to penetrate deeply into the stone (> 2 cm) and bring significant strengthening after just 2 days of reaction. Furthermore, the stone sorptivity is not eliminated after treatment, so that water and water vapor exchanges between the stone and the environment are not com-pletely blocked.

Tipologia del documento
Tesi di dottorato
Sassoni, Enrico
Dottorato di ricerca
Scuola di dottorato
Ingegneria industriale
Settore disciplinare
Settore concorsuale
Parole chiave
Stone Mortars Decay Microstructure Correlation Dissolution Consolidation Hydroxyapatite
Data di discussione
25 Maggio 2011

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