Mixed Mode Fracture Behaviour of Piezoelectric Materials

Boldrini, Claudia (2010) Mixed Mode Fracture Behaviour of Piezoelectric Materials, [Dissertation thesis], Alma Mater Studiorum Università di Bologna. Dottorato di ricerca in Meccanica delle strutture, 22 Ciclo. DOI 10.6092/unibo/amsdottorato/3109.
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Piezoelectrics present an interactive electromechanical behaviour that, especially in recent years, has generated much interest since it renders these materials adapt for use in a variety of electronic and industrial applications like sensors, actuators, transducers, smart structures. Both mechanical and electric loads are generally applied on these devices and can cause high concentrations of stress, particularly in proximity of defects or inhomogeneities, such as flaws, cavities or included particles. A thorough understanding of their fracture behaviour is crucial in order to improve their performances and avoid unexpected failures. Therefore, a considerable number of research works have addressed this topic in the last decades. Most of the theoretical studies on this subject find their analytical background in the complex variable formulation of plane anisotropic elasticity. This theoretical approach bases its main origins in the pioneering works of Muskelishvili and Lekhnitskii who obtained the solution of the elastic problem in terms of independent analytic functions of complex variables. In the present work, the expressions of stresses and elastic and electric displacements are obtained as functions of complex potentials through an analytical formulation which is the application to the piezoelectric static case of an approach introduced for orthotropic materials to solve elastodynamics problems. This method can be considered an alternative to other formalisms currently used, like the Stroh’s formalism. The equilibrium equations are reduced to a first order system involving a six-dimensional vector field. After that, a similarity transformation is induced to reach three independent Cauchy-Riemann systems, so justifying the introduction of the complex variable notation. Closed form expressions of near tip stress and displacement fields are therefore obtained. In the theoretical study of cracked piezoelectric bodies, the issue of assigning consistent electric boundary conditions on the crack faces is of central importance and has been addressed by many researchers. Three different boundary conditions are commonly accepted in literature: the permeable, the impermeable and the semipermeable (“exact”) crack model. This thesis takes into considerations all the three models, comparing the results obtained and analysing the effects of the boundary condition choice on the solution. The influence of load biaxiality and of the application of a remote electric field has been studied, pointing out that both can affect to a various extent the stress fields and the angle of initial crack extension, especially when non-singular terms are retained in the expressions of the electro-elastic solution. Furthermore, two different fracture criteria are applied to the piezoelectric case, and their outcomes are compared and discussed. The work is organized as follows: Chapter 1 briefly introduces the fundamental concepts of Fracture Mechanics. Chapter 2 describes plane elasticity formalisms for an anisotropic continuum (Eshelby-Read-Shockley and Stroh) and introduces for the simplified orthotropic case the alternative formalism we want to propose. Chapter 3 outlines the Linear Theory of Piezoelectricity, its basic relations and electro-elastic equations. Chapter 4 introduces the proposed method for obtaining the expressions of stresses and elastic and electric displacements, given as functions of complex potentials. The solution is obtained in close form and non-singular terms are retained as well. Chapter 5 presents several numerical applications aimed at estimating the effect of load biaxiality, electric field, considered permittivity of the crack. Through the application of fracture criteria the influence of the above listed conditions on the response of the system and in particular on the direction of crack branching is thoroughly discussed.

Tipologia del documento
Tesi di dottorato
Boldrini, Claudia
Dottorato di ricerca
Scuola di dottorato
Ingegneria civile ed architettura
Settore disciplinare
Settore concorsuale
Parole chiave
Fracture Mechanics Piezoelectric Non-singular terms Energy Density Biaxial Load
Data di discussione
31 Maggio 2010

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