Thermochronologic and geodynamic evolution of the Pontides: Sakarya terrane (Karakaya Complex) and Istanbul terrane, Turkey.

Federici, Ilaria (2010) Thermochronologic and geodynamic evolution of the Pontides: Sakarya terrane (Karakaya Complex) and Istanbul terrane, Turkey., [Dissertation thesis], Alma Mater Studiorum Università di Bologna. Dottorato di ricerca in Scienze della terra, 22 Ciclo. DOI 10.6092/unibo/amsdottorato/2940.
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An integrated array of analytical methods -including clay mineralogy, vitrinite reflectance, Raman spectroscopy on carbonaceous material, and apatite fission-track analysis- was employed to constrain the thermal and thermochronological evolution of selected portions of the Pontides of northern Turkey. (1) A multimethod investigation was applied for the first time to characterise the thermal history of the Karakaya Complex, a Permo-Triassic subduction-accretion complex cropping out throughout the Sakarya Zone. The results indicate two different thermal regimes: the Lower Karakaya Complex (Nilüfer Unit) -mostly made of metabasite and marble- suffered peak temperatures of 300-500°C (greenschist facies); the Upper Karakaya Complex (Hodul and the Orhanlar Units) –mostly made of greywacke and arkose- yielded heterogeneous peak temperatures (125-376°C), possibly the result of different degree of involvement of the units in the complex dynamic processes of the accretionary wedge. Contrary to common belief, the results of this study indicate that the entire Karakaya Complex suffered metamorphic conditions. Moreover, a good degree of correlation among the results of these methods demonstrate that Raman spectroscopy on carbonaceous material can be applied successfully to temperature ranges of 200-330°C, thus extending the application of this method from higher grade metamorphic contexts to lower grade metamorphic conditions. (2) Apatite fission-track analysis was applied to the Sakarya and the İstanbul Zones in order to constrain the exhumation history and timing of amalgamation of these two exotic terranes. AFT ages from the İstanbul and Sakarya terranes recorded three distinct episodes of exhumation related to the complex tectonic evolution of the Pontides. (i) Paleocene - early Eocene ages (62.3-50.3 Ma) reflect the closure of the İzmir-Ankara ocean and the ensuing collision between the Sakarya terrane and the Anatolide-Tauride Block. (ii) Late Eocene - earliest Oligocene (43.5-32.3 Ma) ages reflect renewed tectonic activity along the İzmir-Ankara. (iii) Late Oligocene- Early Miocene ages reflect the onset and development of the northern Aegean extension. The consistency of AFT ages, both north and south of the tectonic contact between the İstanbul and Sakarya terranes, suggest that such terranes were amalgamated in pre-Cenozoic times. (3) Fission-track analysis was also applied to rock samples from the Marmara region, in an attempt to constrain the inception and development of the North Anatolian Fault system in the region. The results agree with those from the central Pontides. The youngest AFT ages (Late Oligocene - early Miocene) were recorded in the western portion of the Marmara Sea region and reflect the onset and development of northern Aegean extension. Fission-track data from the eastern Marmara Sea region indicate rapid Early Eocene exhumation induced by the development of the İzmir-Ankara orogenic wedge. Thermochronological data along the trace of the Ganos Fault –a segment of the North Anatolian Fault system- indicate the presence of a tectonic discontinuity active by Late Oligocene time, i.e. well before the arrival of the North Anatolian Fault system in the area. The integration of thermochronologic data with preexisting structural data point to the existence of a system of major E-W-trending structural discontinuities active at least from the Late Oligocene. In the Early Pliocene, inception of the present-day North Anatolian Fault system in the Marmara region occurred by reactivation of these older tectonic structures. 

Tipologia del documento
Tesi di dottorato
Federici, Ilaria
Dottorato di ricerca
Scuola di dottorato
Scienze della terra e dell'ambiente
Settore disciplinare
Settore concorsuale
Parole chiave
Turkey thermochronology
Data di discussione
9 Aprile 2010

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