Outcome respiratorio a lungo termine nei soggetti affetti da cardiopatia congenita sottoposti ad intervento cardiochirurgico

Fabi, Marianna (2010) Outcome respiratorio a lungo termine nei soggetti affetti da cardiopatia congenita sottoposti ad intervento cardiochirurgico , [Dissertation thesis], Alma Mater Studiorum Università di Bologna. Dottorato di ricerca in Medicina materno infantile e dell'età evolutiva e fisiopatologia della funzione sessuale, 22 Ciclo. DOI 10.6092/unibo/amsdottorato/2908.
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Introduction: In the last years cardiac surgery for congenital heart disease (CHD) reduced dramatically mortality modifying prognosis, but, at the same time, increased morbidity in this patient population. Respiratory and cardiovascular systems are strictly anatomically and functionally connected, so that alterations of pulmonary hemodynamic conditions modify respiratory function. While very short-term alterations of respiratory mechanics after surgery were investigated by many authors, not as much works focused on long-term changes. In these subjects rest respiratory function may be limited by several factor: CHD itself (fetal pulmonary perfusion influences vascular and alveolar development), extracorporeal circulation (CEC), thoracotomy and/or sternotomy, rib and sternal contusions, pleural adhesions and pleural fibrosis, secondary to surgical injury. Moreover inflammatory cascade, triggered by CEC, can cause endothelial damage and compromise gas exchange. Aims: The project was conceived to 1) determine severity of respiratory functional impairement in different CHD undergone to surgical correction/palliation; 2) identify the most and the least CHD involved by pulmonary impairement; 3) find a correlation between a specific hemodynamic condition and functional anomaly, and 4) between rest respiratory function and cardiopulmonary exercise test. Materials and methods: We studied 113 subjects with CHD undergone to surgery, and distinguished by group in accord to pulmonary blood flow (group 0: 28 pts with normal pulmonary flow; group 1: 22 pts with increased flow; group 2: 43 pts with decreased flow; group 3: 20 pts with total cavo-pulmonary anastomosis-TCPC) followed by the Pediatric Cardiology and Cardiac Surgery Unit, and we compare them to 37 age- and sex-matched healthy subjects. In Pediatric Pulmonology Unit all pts performed respiratory function tests (static and dynamic volumes, flow/volume curve, airway resistances-raw- and conductance-gaw-, lung diffusion of CO-DLCO- and DLCO/alveolar volume), and CHD pts the same day had cardiopulmonary test. They all were examined and had allergological tests, and respiratory medical history. Results: restrictive pattern (measured on total lung capacity-TLC- and vital capacity-VC) was in all CHD groups, and up to 45% in group 2 and 3. Comparing all groups, we found a significant difference in TLC between healthy and group 2 (p=0.001) and 3 (p=0.004), and in VC between group 2 and healthy (p=0.001) and group 1(p=0.034). Inspiratory capacity (IC) was decreased in group 2 related to healthy (p<0.001) and group 1 (p=0.037). We showed a direct correlation between TLC and VC with age at surgery (p=0.01) and inverse with number of surgical interventions (p=0.03). Reduced FEV1/FVC ratio, Gaw and increased Raw were mostly present in group 3. DLCO was impaired in all groups, but up to 80% in group 3 and 50% in group 2; when corrected for alveolar volume (DLCO/VA) reduction persisted in group 3 (20%), 2 (6.2%) and 0 (7.1%). Exercise test was impaired in all groups: VO2max and VE markedly reduced in all but especially in group 3, and VE/VCO2 slope, marker of ventilatory response to exercise, is increased (<36) in 62.5% of group 3, where other pts had anyway value>32. Comparing group 3 and 2, the most involved categories, we found difference in VO2max and VE/VCO2 slope (respectively p=0.02 and p<0.0001). We evidenced correlation between rest and exercise tests, especially in group 0 (between VO2max and FVC, FEV1, VC, IC; inverse relation between VE/VCO2slope and FVC, FEV1 and VC), but also in group 1 (VO2max and IC), group 2 (VO2max and FVC and FEV1); never in group 3. Discussion: According with literature, we found a frequent impairment of rest pulmonary function in all groups, but especially in group 2 and 3. Restrictive pattern was the most frequent alteration probably due to compromised pulmonary (vascular and alveolar) development secondary to hypoperfusion in fetal and pre-surgery (and pre-TCPC)life. Parenchymal fibrosis, pleural adhesions and thoracic deformities can add further limitation, as showed by the correlation between group 3 and number of surgical intervention. Exercise tests were limited, particularly in group 3 (complex anatomy and lost of chronotropic response), and we found correlations between rest and exercise tests in all but group 3. We speculate that in this patients hemodynamic exceeds respiratory contribution, though markedly decreased.

Tipologia del documento
Tesi di dottorato
Fabi, Marianna
Dottorato di ricerca
Scuola di dottorato
Scienze mediche e chirurgiche cliniche
Settore disciplinare
Settore concorsuale
Parole chiave
funzionalità respiratoria, cardiopatie congenite, test da sforzo cardiopolmonare,
Data di discussione
12 Aprile 2010

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