Analytical challenges in the fields of Nanobioscience and Nanobiotecnology: integrated methods for separation and characterization

Rambaldi, Diana Cristina (2010) Analytical challenges in the fields of Nanobioscience and Nanobiotecnology: integrated methods for separation and characterization, [Dissertation thesis], Alma Mater Studiorum Università di Bologna. Dottorato di ricerca in Scienze chimiche, 22 Ciclo.
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Nano(bio)science and nano(bio)technology play a growing and tremendous interest both on academic and industrial aspects. They are undergoing rapid developments on many fronts such as genomics, proteomics, system biology, and medical applications. However, the lack of characterization tools for nano(bio)systems is currently considered as a major limiting factor to the final establishment of nano(bio)technologies. Flow Field-Flow Fractionation (FlFFF) is a separation technique that is definitely emerging in the bioanalytical field, and the number of applications on nano(bio)analytes such as high molar-mass proteins and protein complexes, sub-cellular units, viruses, and functionalized nanoparticles is constantly increasing. This can be ascribed to the intrinsic advantages of FlFFF for the separation of nano(bio)analytes. FlFFF is ideally suited to separate particles over a broad size range (1 nm-1 μm) according to their hydrodynamic radius (rh). The fractionation is carried out in an empty channel by a flow stream of a mobile phase of any composition. For these reasons, fractionation is developed without surface interaction of the analyte with packing or gel media, and there is no stationary phase able to induce mechanical or shear stress on nanosized analytes, which are for these reasons kept in their native state. Characterization of nano(bio)analytes is made possible after fractionation by interfacing the FlFFF system with detection techniques for morphological, optical or mass characterization. For instance, FlFFF coupling with multi-angle light scattering (MALS) detection allows for absolute molecular weight and size determination, and mass spectrometry has made FlFFF enter the field of proteomics. Potentialities of FlFFF couplings with multi-detection systems are discussed in the first section of this dissertation. The second and the third sections are dedicated to new methods that have been developed for the analysis and characterization of different samples of interest in the fields of diagnostics, pharmaceutics, and nanomedicine. The second section focuses on biological samples such as protein complexes and protein aggregates. In particular it focuses on FlFFF methods developed to give new insights into: a) chemical composition and morphological features of blood serum lipoprotein classes, b) time-dependent aggregation pattern of the amyloid protein Aβ1-42, and c) aggregation state of antibody therapeutics in their formulation buffers. The third section is dedicated to the analysis and characterization of structured nanoparticles designed for nanomedicine applications. The discussed results indicate that FlFFF with on-line MALS and fluorescence detection (FD) may become the unparallel methodology for the analysis and characterization of new, structured, fluorescent nanomaterials.

Tipologia del documento
Tesi di dottorato
Rambaldi, Diana Cristina
Dottorato di ricerca
Scuola di dottorato
Scienze chimiche
Settore disciplinare
Settore concorsuale
Data di discussione
4 Giugno 2010

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