Development of original analytical methods for the therapeutic drug monitoring of CNS druges: Antipsychotics, Antidepressants and Anxiolytics-hypnotics

Mercolini, Laura (2010) Development of original analytical methods for the therapeutic drug monitoring of CNS druges: Antipsychotics, Antidepressants and Anxiolytics-hypnotics, [Dissertation thesis], Alma Mater Studiorum Università di Bologna. Dottorato di ricerca in Scienze farmaceutiche, 22 Ciclo.
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Great strides have been made in the last few years in the pharmacological treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders, with the introduction into the therapy of several new and more efficient agents, which have improved the quality of life of many patients. Despite these advances, a large percentage of patients is still considered “non-responder” to the therapy, not drawing any benefits from it. Moreover, these patients have a peculiar therapeutic profile, due to the very frequent application of polypharmacy, attempting to obtain satisfactory remission of the multiple aspects of psychiatric syndromes. Therapy is heavily individualised and switching from one therapeutic agent to another is quite frequent. One of the main problems of this situation is the possibility of unwanted or unexpected pharmacological interactions, which can occur both during polypharmacy and during switching. Simultaneous administration of psychiatric drugs can easily lead to interactions if one of the administered compounds influences the metabolism of the others. Impaired CYP450 function due to inhibition of the enzyme is frequent. Other metabolic pathways, such as glucuronidation, can also be influenced. The Therapeutic Drug Monitoring (TDM) of psychotropic drugs is an important tool for treatment personalisation and optimisation. It deals with the determination of parent drugs and metabolites plasma levels, in order to monitor them over time and to compare these findings with clinical data. This allows establishing chemical-clinical correlations (such as those between administered dose and therapeutic and side effects), which are essential to obtain the maximum therapeutic efficacy, while minimising side and toxic effects. It is evident the importance of developing sensitive and selective analytical methods for the determination of the administered drugs and their main metabolites, in order to obtain reliable data that can correctly support clinical decisions. During the three years of Ph.D. program, some analytical methods based on HPLC have been developed, validated and successfully applied to the TDM of psychiatric patients undergoing treatment with drugs belonging to following classes: antipsychotics, antidepressants and anxiolytic-hypnotics. The biological matrices which have been processed were: blood, plasma, serum, saliva, urine, hair and rat brain. Among antipsychotics, both atypical and classical agents have been considered, such as haloperidol, chlorpromazine, clotiapine, loxapine, risperidone (and 9-hydroxyrisperidone), clozapine (as well as N-desmethylclozapine and clozapine N-oxide) and quetiapine. While the need for an accurate TDM of schizophrenic patients is being increasingly recognized by psychiatrists, only in the last few years the same attention is being paid to the TDM of depressed patients. This is leading to the acknowledgment that depression pharmacotherapy can greatly benefit from the accurate application of TDM. For this reason, the research activity has also been focused on first and second-generation antidepressant agents, like triciclic antidepressants, trazodone and m-chlorophenylpiperazine (m-cpp), paroxetine and its three main metabolites, venlafaxine and its active metabolite, and the most recent antidepressant introduced into the market, duloxetine. Among anxiolytics-hypnotics, benzodiazepines are very often involved in the pharmacotherapy of depression for the relief of anxious components; for this reason, it is useful to monitor these drugs, especially in cases of polypharmacy. The results obtained during these three years of Ph.D. program are reliable and the developed HPLC methods are suitable for the qualitative and quantitative determination of CNS drugs in biological fluids for TDM purposes.

Tipologia del documento
Tesi di dottorato
Mercolini, Laura
Dottorato di ricerca
Scuola di dottorato
Scienze chimiche
Settore disciplinare
Settore concorsuale
Parole chiave
Therapeutic Drug Monitoring (TDM), Central Nervous System Drugs, Biological fluids, HPLC, Solid Phase Extraction (SPE)
Data di discussione
15 Aprile 2010

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