Trattamenti ad aria calda per la decontaminazione superficiale delle uova in guscio

Cevoli, Chiara (2010) Trattamenti ad aria calda per la decontaminazione superficiale delle uova in guscio, [Dissertation thesis], Alma Mater Studiorum Università di Bologna. Dottorato di ricerca in Ingegneria agraria, 22 Ciclo. DOI 10.6092/unibo/amsdottorato/2517.
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In order to improve the animal welfare, the Council Directive 1999/74/EC (defining minimum standards for the welfare of laying hens) will ban conventional cage systems since 2012, in favour of enriched cages or floor systems. As a consequence an increased risk of bacterial contamination of eggshell is expected (EFSA, 2005). Furthermore egg-associated salmonellosis is an important public health problem throughout the world (Roberts et al., 1994). In this regard the introduction of efficient measures to reduce eggshell contamination by S. Enteritidis or other bacterial pathogens, and thus to prevent any potential or additional food safety risk for Human health, may be envisaged. The hot air pasteurization can be a viable alternative for the decontamination of the surface of the egg shell. Few studies have been performed on the decontamination power of this technique on table eggs (Hou et al, 1996; James et al., 2002). The aim of this study was to develop innovative techniques to remove surface contamination of shell eggs by hot air under natural or forced convection. Initially two simplified finite element models describing the thermal interaction between the air and egg were developed, respectively for the natural and forced convection. The numerical models were validated using an egg simulant equipped by type-K thermocouple (Chromel/Alumel). Once validated, the models allowed the selection of a thermal cycle with an inner temperature always lower than 55°C. Subsequently a specific apparatus composed by two hot air generators, one cold air generator and rolling cylinder support, was built to physically condition the eggs. The decontamination power of the thermal treatments was evaluated on shell eggs experimentally inoculated with either Salmonella Enteritidis, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes and on shell eggs containing only the indigenous microflora. The applicability of treatments was further evaluated by comparing quality traits of treated and not treated eggs immediately after the treatment and after 28 days of storage at 20°C. The results showed that the treatment characterized by two shots of hot air at 350°C for 8 sec, spaced by a cooling interval of 32 (forced convection), reduce the bacterial population of more than 90% (Salmonella enteritidis and Listeria monocytogenes). No statistically significant results were obtained comparing E. coli treated and not treated eggs as well as indigenous microflora treated and not treated eggs. A reduction of 2.6 log was observed on Salmonella enteritidis load of eggs immediately after the treatment in oven at 200°C for 200 minutes (natural convection). Furthermore no detrimental effects on quality traits of treated eggs were recorded. These results support the hot air techniques for the surface decontamination of table eggs as an effective industrial process.

Tipologia del documento
Tesi di dottorato
Cevoli, Chiara
Dottorato di ricerca
Scuola di dottorato
Scienze agrarie
Settore disciplinare
Settore concorsuale
Data di discussione
31 Maggio 2010

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