Cross-Talk tra Bifidobacterium e intestino umano: impatto sulle attività health promoting

Dipalo, Samuele Ciro Federico (2010) Cross-Talk tra Bifidobacterium e intestino umano: impatto sulle attività health promoting , [Dissertation thesis], Alma Mater Studiorum Università di Bologna. Dottorato di ricerca in Biologia cellulare, molecolare e industriale/cellular, molecular and industrial biology: progetto n. 3 Biocatalisi applicata e microbiologia industriale, 22 Ciclo. DOI 10.6092/unibo/amsdottorato/2336.
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Bifidobacteria constitute up to 3% of the total microbiota and represent one of the most important healthpromoting bacterial groups of the human intestinal microflora. The presence of Bifidobacterium in the human gastrointestinal tract has been directly related to several health-promoting activities; however, to date, no information about the specific mechanisms of interaction with the host is available. The first health-promoting activities studied in these job was the oxalate-degrading activity. Oxalic acid occurs extensively in nature and plays diverse roles, especially in pathological processes. Due to its highly oxidizing effects, hyper absorption or abnormal synthesis of oxalate can cause serious acute disorders in mammals and be lethal in extreme cases. Intestinal oxalate-degrading bacteria could therefore be pivotal in maintaining oxalate homeostasis, reducing the risk of kidney stone development. In this study, the oxalate-degrading activity of 14 bifidobacterial strains was measured by a capillary electrophoresis technique. The oxc gene, encoding oxalyl-CoA decarboxylase, a key enzyme in oxalate catabolism, was isolated by probing a genomic library of B. animalis subsp. lactis BI07, which was one of the most active strains in the preliminary screening. The genetic and transcriptional organization of oxc flanking regions was determined, unravelling the presence of other two independently transcribed open reading frames, potentially responsible for B. animalis subsp. lactis ability to degrade oxalate. Transcriptional analysis, using real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR, revealed that these genes were highly induced in cells first adapted to subinhibitory concentrations of oxalate and then exposed to pH 4.5. Acidic conditions were also a prerequisite for a significant oxalate degradation rate, which dramatically increased in oxalate pre-adapted cells, as demonstrated in fermentation experiments with different pH-controlled batch cultures. These findings provide new insights in the characterization of oxalate-degrading probiotic bacteria and may support the use of B. animalis subsp. lactis as a promising adjunct for the prophylaxis and management of oxalate-related kidney disease. In order to provide some insight into the molecular mechanisms involved in the interaction with the host, in the second part of the job, we investigated whether Bifidobacterium was able to capture human plasminogen on the cell surface. The binding of human plasminogen to Bifidobacterium was dependent on lysine residues of surface protein receptors. By using a proteomic approach, we identified six putative plasminogen-binding proteins in the cell wall fraction of three strain of Bifidobacterium. The data suggest that plasminogen binding to Bifidobactrium is due to the concerted action of a number of proteins located on the bacterial cell surface, some of which are highly conserved cytoplasmic proteins which have other essential cellular functions. Our findings represent a step forward in understanding the mechanisms involved in the Bifidobacterium-host interaction. In these job w studied a new approach based on to MALDI-TOF MS to measure the interaction between entire bacterial cells and host molecular target. MALDI-TOF (Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight)—mass spectrometry has been applied, for the first time, in the investigation of whole Bifidobacterium cells-host target proteins interaction. In particular, by means of this technique, a dose dependent human plasminogen-binding activity has been shown for Bifidobacterium. The involvement of lysine binding sites on the bacterial cell surface has been proved. The obtained result was found to be consistent with that from well-established standard methodologies, thus the proposed MALDI-TOF approach has the potential to enter as a fast alternative method in the field of biorecognition studies involving in bacterial cells and proteins of human origin.

Tipologia del documento
Tesi di dottorato
Dipalo, Samuele Ciro Federico
Dottorato di ricerca
Scuola di dottorato
Scienze biologiche, biomediche e biotecnologiche
Settore disciplinare
Settore concorsuale
Parole chiave
Bifidobacterium, ossalato, Plasminogeno
Data di discussione
25 Marzo 2010

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