*Modulation Techniques for Multi-Phase Converters and Control Strategies for Multi-Phase Electric Drives*, [Dissertation thesis], Alma Mater Studiorum Università di Bologna. Dottorato di ricerca in Ingegneria elettrotecnica, 22 Ciclo.

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## Abstract

The ever-increasing spread of automation in industry puts the electrical engineer in a central role as a promoter of technological development in a sector such as the use of electricity, which is the basis of all the machinery and productive processes. Moreover the spread of drives for motor control and static converters with structures ever more complex, places the electrical engineer to face new challenges whose solution has as critical elements in the implementation of digital control techniques with the requirements of inexpensiveness and efficiency of the final product. The successfully application of solutions using non-conventional static converters awake an increasing interest in science and industry due to the promising opportunities. However, in the same time, new problems emerge whose solution is still under study and debate in the scientific community During the Ph.D. course several themes have been developed that, while obtaining the recent and growing interest of scientific community, have much space for the development of research activity and for industrial applications. The first area of research is related to the control of three phase induction motors with high dynamic performance and the sensorless control in the high speed range. The management of the operation of induction machine without position or speed sensors awakes interest in the industrial world due to the increased reliability and robustness of this solution combined with a lower cost of production and purchase of this technology compared to the others available in the market. During this dissertation control techniques will be proposed which are able to exploit the total dc link voltage and at the same time capable to exploit the maximum torque capability in whole speed range with good dynamic performance. The proposed solution preserves the simplicity of tuning of the regulators. Furthermore, in order to validate the effectiveness of presented solution, it is assessed in terms of performance and complexity and compared to two other algorithm presented in literature. The feasibility of the proposed algorithm is also tested on induction motor drive fed by a matrix converter. Another important research area is connected to the development of technology for vehicular applications. In this field the dynamic performances and the low power consumption is one of most important goals for an effective algorithm. Towards this direction, a control scheme for induction motor that integrates within a coherent solution some of the features that are commonly required to an electric vehicle drive is presented. The main features of the proposed control scheme are the capability to exploit the maximum torque in the whole speed range, a weak dependence on the motor parameters, a good robustness against the variations of the dc-link voltage and, whenever possible, the maximum efficiency. The second part of this dissertation is dedicated to the multi-phase systems. This technology, in fact, is characterized by a number of issues worthy of investigation that make it competitive with other technologies already on the market. Multiphase systems, allow to redistribute power at a higher number of phases, thus making possible the construction of electronic converters which otherwise would be very difficult to achieve due to the limits of present power electronics. Multiphase drives have an intrinsic reliability given by the possibility that a fault of a phase, caused by the possible failure of a component of the converter, can be solved without inefficiency of the machine or application of a pulsating torque. The control of the magnetic field spatial harmonics in the air-gap with order higher than one allows to reduce torque noise and to obtain high torque density motor and multi-motor applications. In one of the next chapters a control scheme able to increase the motor torque by adding a third harmonic component to the air-gap magnetic field will be presented. Above the base speed the control system reduces the motor flux in such a way to ensure the maximum torque capability. The presented analysis considers the drive constrains and shows how these limits modify the motor performance. The multi-motor applications are described by a well-defined number of multiphase machines, having series connected stator windings, with an opportune permutation of the phases these machines can be independently controlled with a single multi-phase inverter. In this dissertation this solution will be presented and an electric drive consisting of two five-phase PM tubular actuators fed by a single five-phase inverter will be presented. Finally the modulation strategies for a multi-phase inverter will be illustrated. The problem of the space vector modulation of multiphase inverters with an odd number of phases is solved in different way. An algorithmic approach and a look-up table solution will be proposed. The inverter output voltage capability will be investigated, showing that the proposed modulation strategy is able to fully exploit the dc input voltage either in sinusoidal or non-sinusoidal operating conditions. All this aspects are considered in the next chapters. In particular, Chapter 1 summarizes the mathematical model of induction motor. The Chapter 2 is a brief state of art on three-phase inverter. Chapter 3 proposes a stator flux vector control for a three- phase induction machine and compares this solution with two other algorithms presented in literature. Furthermore, in the same chapter, a complete electric drive based on matrix converter is presented. In Chapter 4 a control strategy suitable for electric vehicles is illustrated. Chapter 5 describes the mathematical model of multi-phase induction machines whereas chapter 6 analyzes the multi-phase inverter and its modulation strategies. Chapter 7 discusses the minimization of the power losses in IGBT multi-phase inverters with carrier-based pulse width modulation. In Chapter 8 an extended stator flux vector control for a seven-phase induction motor is presented. Chapter 9 concerns the high torque density applications and in Chapter 10 different fault tolerant control strategies are analyzed. Finally, the last chapter presents a positioning multi-motor drive consisting of two PM tubular five-phase actuators fed by a single five-phase inverter.