Expression and cellular localization of Copper transporter 2 (Ctr2) in Mus musculus

Cottignoli, Stefano (2009) Expression and cellular localization of Copper transporter 2 (Ctr2) in Mus musculus, [Dissertation thesis], Alma Mater Studiorum Università di Bologna. Dottorato di ricerca in Biochimica, 21 Ciclo. DOI 10.6092/unibo/amsdottorato/1883.
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The Ctr family is an essential part of the copper homeostasis machinery and its members share sequence homology and structural and functional features. Higher eukaryotes express two members of this family Ctr1 and Ctr2. Numerous structural and functional studies are available for Ctr1, the only high affinity Cu(I) transporter thus far identified. Ctr1 holigotrimers mediate cellular copper uptake and this protein was demonstrated to be essential for embryonic development and to play a crucial role in dietary copper acquisition. Instead very little is known about Ctr2, it bears structural homology to the yeast vacuolar copper transporter, which mediates mobilization of vacuolar copper stores. Recent studies using over-expressed epitope-tagged forms of human Ctr2 suggested a function as a low affinity copper transporter that can mediate either copper uptake from the extracellular environment or mobilization of lysosomal copper stores. Using an antibody that recognizes endogenous mouse Ctr2, we studied the expression and localization of endogenous mouse Ctr2 in cell culture and in mouse models to understand its regulation and function in copper homeostasis. By immunoblot we observed a regulation of mCtr2 protein levels in a copper and Ctr1 dependent way. Our observations in cells and transgenic mice suggest that lack of Ctr1 induces a strong downregulation of Ctr2 probably by a post-translational mechanism. By indirect immunofluorescence we observed an exclusive intracellular localization in a perinuclear compartment and no co-localization with lysosomal markers. Immunofluorescence experiments in Ctr1 null cells, supported by sequence analysis, suggest that lysosomes may play a role in mCtr2 biology not as resident compartment, but as a degradation site. In appendix a LC-mass method for analysis of algal biotoxins belonging to the family of PsP (paralytic shellfish poisoning) is described.

Tipologia del documento
Tesi di dottorato
Cottignoli, Stefano
Dottorato di ricerca
Scuola di dottorato
Scienze biologiche, biomediche e biotecnologiche
Settore disciplinare
Settore concorsuale
Parole chiave
copper transporter ctr1 ctr2 mouse western immunofluorescence
Data di discussione
23 Aprile 2009

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