Riabilitazione protesica ed implanto-protesica di pazienti in età evolutiva affetti da Displasia Ectodermica

Montanari, Marco (2009) Riabilitazione protesica ed implanto-protesica di pazienti in età evolutiva affetti da Displasia Ectodermica, [Dissertation thesis], Alma Mater Studiorum Università di Bologna. Dottorato di ricerca in Odontoiatria per disabili, 21 Ciclo. DOI 10.6092/unibo/amsdottorato/1834.
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Introduction. Ectodermal Dysplasias are a heterogeneous group of inherited disorders characterized by dysplasia of tissues of ectodermal origin (hair, nails, teeth, skins and glands). Clinically, it may be divided into two broad categories: the X-linked hypoidrotic form and the hidrotic form. Hypohidrotic Ectodermal Dysplasia (H.E.D) is characterized by the triad oligo-anodontia, hypotricosis, hypo-anhydrosis (Christ-Siemens-Tourane syndrome). The incidence of HED is about 1/100,000. Mutation in the actodysplasin-A (EDA) and ectodysplasin-A receptor (EDAR) genes are responsible for X-linked and autosomal HED. The clinical features include sparse, fine hair, missing or conical-shaped teeth, decreased sweat and mucous glands, hypoplastic skin, and heat intolerance with exercise or increased ambient temperature. Complete or partial anodontia and malformation of teeth are the most frequent dental findings. Incisors and canines are often conical-shaped while primarily second molars, if present, are mostly affected by taurodontism. Treatment is supportive and includes protection from heat exposure, early prosthetic rehabilitation, skin, hair ear, nose and nail care, and genetic counseling for family planning. The diagnosis of HED in the neonatal and early infancy period may be difficult since sparse hair and absent teeth are normal finding at this age. In childhood the diagnosis is more easily made on the basis of history and clinical examination. Dental abnormalities are the most common complaint. Prosthetic rehabilitation has been recommended as an essential part of the management of HED because is important from functional, esthetic, and psychological standpoint. A team approach that includes input from a pediatric dentist, an orthodontist, a prosthodontist, and an oral and maxillofacial surgeon is necessary for a successful outcome. Conventional prosthodontic rehabilitation in young patient is often difficult because of the anatomical abnormalities of existing teeth and alveolar ridges. The conical shaped teeth and “knife-edge” alveolar ridges result in poor retention and instability of dentures. Moreover, denture must permit jaws expansion and a correct pattern of growth. Materials and Methods. Complete removable dentures were provided to allow for normal physiological development and a corrected masticatory function. Initial maxillary and mandibular impressions were made with smallest stock trays and irreversible hydrocolloid and then final impressions ware made with light-bodied polysulfide rubber base impression material. A base of autopolymerizing resin was constructed and a wax rim was added to the base. The patient’s vertical dimension of occlusion was established by assessing phonetic and esthetic criteria. Preliminary occlusal relations were recorded, and the mandibular cast was mounted on the articulator. Acrylic resin teeth specific for children dentures were selected and mounted. The dentures were tried in and, after proper adjustments, were inserted. The patients were monitored clinically every month to fit prostheses. Cephalometric radiographs were taken every 6 month with the prostheses in place in order to evaluate correct pattern of growth. Cephalometric measurements were realized and used to evaluate the effect of rehabilitation on craniofacial growth. Cephalometric measurements of sound patients were compared with ED patients. After two month expander screws (three-way screw in the upper denture and two-way the lower one)were inserted in each denture in order to permit the expansion of the denture and the jaws growth. Where conical teeth were present, composite crown were realized and luted to improve the esthetic and phonesis. In order to improve retention the placement of endosseous implants was carried out. TC 3D Accuitomo was performed and a resin model of mandibular bone of the patient was realized. At the age of 11 years two implants were inserted into anterior mandible in a child with anodontia. Despite a remarkable multi-dimensional atrophy of the mandibular alveolar process, the insertion of two tapered screw implants (SAMO Smiler, diameter 3.8, length 10 mm). After a submerged healing period of two-three month, the implants were exposed. Implants were connected with an expansion guide that permits mandibular growth and prosthetic retention. The amount of mandibular growth was also evaluate dusing the expansion guide. Results. Early oral rehabilitation improve oral function, phonesis and esthetic, reducing social impairment. Treated patients showed normal cephalometric measurement. Early rehabilitation is able to prevent the prognatissm of the mandibula . The number of teeth was significantly related to several changes in craniofacial morphology. Discussion. In the present study the 5,3% of ED patients showed hypodontia, the l’89,4% di oligodontia, and the 5,3% di anodontia. The cephalometric analysis supports that ED patients showed midface hypoplasia. ED groups showed an increased pogonion to nasion measurement than sound patients, indicative of class III tendency. The present study demonstrated that number of teeth was significantly correlated with deviation of cephalometric measurements from normality. Oligoanodontia is responsible for changing of cephalometric measuraments also on sagittal plane with a class III tendency. Maxillary jaw showed a retrused position related to the presence of hypodontia.

Tipologia del documento
Tesi di dottorato
Montanari, Marco
Dottorato di ricerca
Scuola di dottorato
Scienze mediche e chirurgiche cliniche
Settore disciplinare
Settore concorsuale
Data di discussione
13 Luglio 2009

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