Diagnostic techniques for EHD and MHD interaction

Neretti, Gabriele (2009) Diagnostic techniques for EHD and MHD interaction, [Dissertation thesis], Alma Mater Studiorum Università di Bologna. Dottorato di ricerca in Ingegneria elettrotecnica, 21 Ciclo. DOI 10.6092/unibo/amsdottorato/1796.
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The impact of plasma technologies is growing both in the academic and in the industrial fields. Nowadays, a great interest is focused in plasma applications in aeronautics and astronautics domains. Plasma actuators based on the Magneto-Hydro-Dynamic (MHD) and Electro- Hydro-Dynamic (EHD) interactions are potentially able to suitably modify the fluid-dynamics characteristics around a flying body without utilizing moving parts. This could lead to the control of an aircraft with negligible response time, more reliability and improvements of the performance. In order to study the aforementioned interactions, a series of experiments and a wide number of diagnostic techniques have been utilized. The EHD interaction, realized by means of a Dielectric Barrier Discharge (DBD) actuator, and its impact on the boundary layer have been evaluated by means of two different experiments. In the first one a three phase multi-electrode flat panel actuator is used. Different external flow velocities (from 1 to 20m/s) and different values of the supplied voltage and frequency have been considered. Moreover a change of the phase sequence has been done to verify the influence of the electric field existing between successive phases. Measurements of the induced speed had shown the effect of the supply voltage and the frequency, and the phase order in the momentum transfer phenomenon. Gains in velocity, inside the boundary layer, of about 5m/s have been obtained. Spectroscopic measurements allowed to determine the rotational and the vibrational temperature of the plasma which lie in the range of 320 ÷ 440°K and of 3000 ÷ 3900°K respectively. A deviation from thermodynamic equilibrium had been found. The second EHD experiment is realized on a single electrode pair DBD actuator driven by nano-pulses superimposed to a DC or an AC bias. This new supply system separates the plasma formation mechanism from the acceleration action on the fluid, leading to an higher degree of the control of the process. Both the voltage and the frequency of the nano-pulses and the amplitude and the waveform of the bias have been varied during the experiment. Plasma jets and vortex behavior had been observed by means of fast Schlieren imaging. This allowed a deeper understanding of the EHD interaction process. A velocity increase in the boundary layer of about 2m/s had been measured. Thrust measurements have been performed by means of a scales and compared with experimental data reported in the literature. For similar voltage amplitudes thrust larger than those of the literature, had been observed. Surface charge measurements led to realize a modified DBD actuator able to obtain similar performances when compared with that of other experiments. However in this case a DC bias replacing the AC bias had been used. MHD interaction experiments had been carried out in a hypersonic wind tunnel in argon with a flow of Mach 6. Before the MHD experiments a thermal, fluid-dynamic and plasma characterization of the hypersonic argon plasma flow have been done. The electron temperature and the electron number density had been determined by means of emission spectroscopy and microwave absorption measurements. A deviation from thermodynamic equilibrium had been observed. The electron number density showed to be frozen at the stagnation region condition in the expansion through the nozzle. MHD experiments have been performed using two axial symmetric test bodies. Similar magnetic configurations were used. Permanent magnets inserted into the test body allowed to generate inside the plasma azimuthal currents around the conical shape of the body. These Faraday currents are responsible of the MHD body force which acts against the flow. The MHD interaction process has been observed by means of fast imaging, pressure and electrical measurements. Images showed bright rings due to the Faraday currents heating and exciting the plasma particles. Pressure measurements showed increases of the pressure in the regions where the MHD interaction is large. The pressure is 10 to 15% larger than when the MHD interaction process is silent. Finally by means of electrostatic probes mounted flush on the test body lateral surface Hall fields of about 500V/m had been measured. These results have been used for the validation of a numerical MHD code.

Tipologia del documento
Tesi di dottorato
Neretti, Gabriele
Dottorato di ricerca
Scuola di dottorato
Ingegneria industriale
Settore disciplinare
Settore concorsuale
Parole chiave
Plasma Engineering, plasma diagnostic, weakly ionized gas, MHD and EHD.
Data di discussione
28 Aprile 2009

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