New Synthetic Polyamines as Multi-Target-Directed Ligands for the Treatment of Alzheimer's Disease and Cancer: Design, Synthesis and Biological Evaluation

Milelli, Andrea (2009) New Synthetic Polyamines as Multi-Target-Directed Ligands for the Treatment of Alzheimer's Disease and Cancer: Design, Synthesis and Biological Evaluation, [Dissertation thesis], Alma Mater Studiorum Università di Bologna. Dottorato di ricerca in Scienze farmaceutiche, 21 Ciclo. DOI 10.6092/unibo/amsdottorato/1763.
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Alzheimer's disease (AD) and cancer represent two of the main causes of death worldwide. They are complex multifactorial diseases and several biochemical targets have been recognized to play a fundamental role in their development. Basing on their complex nature, a promising therapeutical approach could be represented by the so-called "Multi-Target-Directed Ligand" approach. This new strategy is based on the assumption that a single molecule could hit several targets responsible for the onset and/or progression of the pathology. In particular in AD, most currently prescribed drugs aim to increase the level of acetylcholine in the brain by inhibiting the enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE). However, clinical experience shows that AChE inhibition is a palliative treatment, and the simple modulation of a single target does not address AD aetiology. Research into newer and more potent anti-AD agents is thus focused on compounds whose properties go beyond AChE inhibition (such as inhibition of the enzyme β-secretase and inhibition of the aggregation of beta-amyloid). Therefore, the MTDL strategy seems a more appropriate approach for addressing the complexity of AD and may provide new drugs for tackling its multifactorial nature. In this thesis, it is described the design of new MTDLs able to tackle the multifactorial nature of AD. Such new MTDLs designed are less flexible analogues of Caproctamine, one of the first MTDL owing biological properties useful for the AD treatment. These new compounds are able to inhibit the enzymes AChE, beta-secretase and to inhibit both AChE-induced and self-induced beta-amyloid aggregation. In particular, the most potent compound of the series is able to inhibit AChE in subnanomolar range, to inhibit β-secretase in micromolar concentration and to inhibit both AChE-induced and self-induced beta-amyloid aggregation in micromolar concentration. Cancer, as AD, is a very complex pathology and many different therapeutical approaches are currently use for the treatment of such pathology. However, due to its multifactorial nature the MTDL approach could be, in principle, apply also to this pathology. Aim of this thesis has been the development of new molecules owing different structural motifs able to simultaneously interact with some of the multitude of targets responsible for the pathology. The designed compounds displayed cytotoxic activity in different cancer cell lines. In particular, the most potent compounds of the series have been further evaluated and they were able to bind DNA resulting 100-fold more potent than the reference compound Mitonafide. Furthermore, these compounds were able to trigger apoptosis through caspases activation and to inhibit PIN1 (preliminary result). This last protein is a very promising target because it is overexpressed in many human cancers, it functions as critical catalyst for multiple oncogenic pathways and in several cancer cell lines depletion of PIN1 determines arrest of mitosis followed by apoptosis induction. In conclusion, this study may represent a promising starting pint for the development of new MTDLs hopefully useful for cancer and AD treatment.

Tipologia del documento
Tesi di dottorato
Milelli, Andrea
Dottorato di ricerca
Scuola di dottorato
Scienze chimiche
Settore disciplinare
Settore concorsuale
Parole chiave
Alzheimer's Disease, Cancer, Multi-Target-Directed Ligand approach
Data di discussione
29 Aprile 2009

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