Adattamento e acclimatazione a diverse temperature di lieviti psicrofili obbligati e facoltativi e di lieviti mesofili. Studio della produzione di acidi grassi polinsaturi omega-3 e omega-6 per via fermentativa.

Cordisco, Lisa (2009) Adattamento e acclimatazione a diverse temperature di lieviti psicrofili obbligati e facoltativi e di lieviti mesofili. Studio della produzione di acidi grassi polinsaturi omega-3 e omega-6 per via fermentativa., [Dissertation thesis], Alma Mater Studiorum Università di Bologna. Dottorato di ricerca in Biocatalisi applicata e microbiologia industriale, 21 Ciclo. DOI 10.6092/unibo/amsdottorato/1530.
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Adaptation and acclimation to different temperatures of obligate psychrophilic, facultative psychrophilic and mesophilic yeasts. Production of ω-3 and ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids by fermentative way. Obligate psychrophilic, facultative psychrophilic and mesophilic yeasts were cultured in a carbon rich medium at different temperatures to investigate if growth parameters, lipid accumulation and fatty acid composition were adaptive and/or acclimatory responses. Acclimation of facultative psychrophiles and mesophiles to lower temperature negatively affected their specific growth rate. Obligate psychrophiles exhibited the highest biomass yield (YX/S), followed by facultative psychrophiles, then by mesophiles. The growth temperature did not influence the YX/S of facultative psychrophiles and mesophiles. Acclimation to lower temperature caused the increase in lipid yield (YL/X) in mesophilic yeasts, but did not affect YL/X in facultative psychrophiles. Similar YL/X were found in both facultative and obligated psychrophiles, suggesting that lipid accumulation is not a distinctive character of adaptation to permanently cold environments. The extent of unsaturation of fatty acids was one major adaptive feature of the yeasts which colonize permanently cold ecosystems. Remarkable amounts of α-linolenic acid were found in obligate psychrophiles at the expenses of linoleic acid, whereas it was generally scarce or absent in all the others strains. Increased unsaturation of fatty acids was also an acclimatory response of mesophiles and facultative psychrophiles to lower temperature. It’s well known that omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) display a variety of beneficial effects on various organ systems and diseases, therefore a process for the microbial production of omega-3 PUFAs would be of great interest. This work sought also to investigate if one of the better psychrophilic yeast, Rhodotorula glacialis DBVPG 4785, stimulated by acclamatory responses, produced omega-3 PUFAs. In fact, the adaptation of psychrophilic yeasts to cold niches is related to the production of higher amounts of lipids and to increased unsaturation degree of fatty acids, presumably to maintain membrane fluidity and functionality at low temperatures. Bioreactor fermentations of Rhodotorula glacialis DBVPG 4785 were carried out at 25, 20, 15, 10, 5, 0, and -3°C in a complex medium with high C:N ratio for 15 days. High biomass production was attained at all the temperatures with a similar biomass/glucose yield (YXS), between 0.40 and 0.45, but the specific growth rate of the strain decreased as the temperature diminished. The coefficients YL/X have been measured between a minimum of 0.50 to a maximum of 0.67, but it was not possible to show a clear effect of temperature. Similarly, the coefficient YL/S ranges from a minimum of 0.22 to a maximum of 0.28: again, it does not appear to be any significant changes due to temperature. Among omega-3 PUFAs, only α-linolenic acid (ALA, 18:3n-3) was found at temperatures below to 0°C, while, it’s remarkable, that the worthy arachidonic acid (C20:4,n-6), stearidonic acid (C20:4,n-3) C22:0 and docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6n-3) were produced only at the late exponential phase and the stationary phase of batch fermentations at 0 and -3°C. The docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is a beneficial omega-3 PUFA that is usually found in fatty fish and fish oils. The results herein reported improve the knowledge about the responses which enable psychrophilic yeasts to cope with cold and may support exploitation of these strains as a new resource for biotechnological applications.

Tipologia del documento
Tesi di dottorato
Cordisco, Lisa
Dottorato di ricerca
Scuola di dottorato
Scienze biologiche, biomediche e biotecnologiche
Settore disciplinare
Settore concorsuale
Parole chiave
Lieviti psicrofili acidi grassi polinsaturi
Data di discussione
29 Maggio 2009

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