Nuove tecniche per l'allevamento massale di Ditteri del genere Coenosia Meigen

Valentini, Marta (2009) Nuove tecniche per l'allevamento massale di Ditteri del genere Coenosia Meigen, [Dissertation thesis], Alma Mater Studiorum Università di Bologna. Dottorato di ricerca in Entomologia agraria, 21 Ciclo. DOI 10.6092/unibo/amsdottorato/1426.
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The species of the genus Coenosia Meigen are polyphagous predators both in the larval and in the adult stage. In Europe five Coenosia species of the ‘tigrina group’ are naturally present in greenhouses, where they can establish for long periods. As their wide preys range includes important pests of protected crops, as Aleyrodidae, Sciaridae and Agromyzidae, Coenosia species are considered promising potential biological control agents. A method for rearing Coenosia species in vivo was developed for the first time in 1993 in Germany, where C. attenuata, C. strigipes and C. humilis were bred on Bradysia paupera (Diptera Sciaridae), reared on Fusarium spp. cultivated on wood fibre. Although this method was partially simplified afterwards, it is still too complex and expensive for a mass production. This research aimed at simplifying this rearing procedure and making it cheaper, in the perspective of an eventual mass production. Studies on potential preys were conducted, to determine their suitability for C. attenuata larvae and adults and to develop rearing methods. Biology and rearing methods of Bradysia paupera Tuomikoski, Scatella stagnalis Fallén and Drosophila melanogaster Meigen (Diptera: Sciaridae, Ephydridae, Drosophilidae) were compared. B. paupera resulted the most suitable prey for rearing C. attenuata in vivo. The Sciarid fly was effectively reared on damp coconut fibre with fresh Agaricus bisporus (J.E. Lange) Pilát, thus simplifying the existing method. After preliminary trials with different potential preys, attempts to rear C. attenuata in vivo on B. paupera and D. melanogaster were made. The best results were obtained with B. paupera, reared on coconut fibre and A. bisporus, but the method needs further improvement. Trials of in vitro rearing of C. attenuata were also made: as no specific diet for Coenosia species is reported in literature, different potentially suitable media were tested. Among these, a specific diet for Diptera Tachinidae resulted a good starting point for further studies and improvements. The biology of C. attenuata adults captured in greenhouses was also studied, by observing both groups and isolated individuals. Data on lifespan, daily number of preys per adult, daily number of laid eggs and hatching rate were recorded, and the effects of different foods on these parameters were analyzed. The following foods were compared: D. melanogaster adults only, as preys for C. attenuata; D. melanogaster adults and a water-honey solution; the water-honey solution only. Honey resulted an effective food integration for C. attenuata, increasing lifespan and the number of egg laying females. It is possible that in greenhouses Coenosia adults complete the preys diet with nectar and/or honeydew. Moreover, the integration with honey reduced the daily preys consumption. This may allow to prevent cannibalism among Coenosia adults in the rearing conditions, where high population densities are required. A survey of the Coenosia species naturally present in Lombardy greenhouses was conducted. The species C. attenuata, C. strigipes, C. tigrina and C. atra were detected. C. attenuata resulted the most common, recorded in most greenhouses and for consecutive years. Besides, the presence of potential preys, weeds and the crops were recorded in each greenhouse. Nevertheless, it is difficult to determine the relation between these parameters and the presence of Coenosia species.

Tipologia del documento
Tesi di dottorato
Valentini, Marta
Dottorato di ricerca
Scuola di dottorato
Scienze agrarie
Settore disciplinare
Settore concorsuale
Data di discussione
12 Giugno 2009

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