The RAS-Lung project: implementing blood and tissue genotyping in KRAS-Positive non-small cell lung cancer treatment

De Giglio, Andrea (2024) The RAS-Lung project: implementing blood and tissue genotyping in KRAS-Positive non-small cell lung cancer treatment, [Dissertation thesis], Alma Mater Studiorum Università di Bologna. Dottorato di ricerca in Oncologia, ematologia e patologia, 36 Ciclo. DOI 10.48676/unibo/amsdottorato/11258.
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Background: The frontline management of non-oncogene addicted non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) involves immunotherapy (ICI) alone or combined with chemotherapy (CT-ICI). As therapeutic options expand, refining NSCLC genotyping gains paramount importance. The dynamic landscape of KRAS-positive NSCLC presents a spectrum of treatment options, including ICI, targeted therapy, and combination strategies currently under investigation. Methods: The two-year RASLUNG project, featuring both retrospective and prospective cohorts, aimed to analyze the predictive and prognostic impact of KRAS mutations on tumor tissue and circulating DNA (ctDNA). Secondary objectives included assessing the roles of co-mutations and longitudinal changes in KRAS mutant copies concerning treatment response and survival outcomes. An external validation study confirmed the prognostic or predictive significance of co-mutations. Results: In the prospective cohort (n=24), patients with liver metastases exhibited significantly elevated ctDNA levels(p=0.01), while those with >3 metastatic sites showed increased Allele Frequency (AF) (P=0.002). Median overall survival (OS) was 7.5 months, progression-free survival (PFS) was 4.0 months, and the objective response rate (ORR) was 33.3%. Higher AF correlated with an increased risk of death (HR 1.04, p = 0.03), though not progression. Notably, a reduction in plasma DNA levels was significantly associated with objective response(p=0.01). In the retrospective cohort, KRAS and STK11 mutations co-occurred in 14/21 patients (p=0.053). STK11 mutations were independently detrimental to OS (HR 1.97, p=0.025) after adjusting for various factors. KRAS tissue AF did not correlate with OS or PFS. Within the validation dataset, STK11 mutations were significantly associated with an increased risk of death in univariate (HR 2.01, p<0.001) and multivariate models (HR 1.66, p=0.001) after adjustments. Conclusion: The RAS-Lung Project, employing innovative genotyping techniques, underscores the significance of comprehensive NSCLC genotyping. Tailored next-generation sequencing (NGS) and ctDNA monitoring may offer potential benefits in navigating the evolving landscape of KRAS-positive NSCLC treatment.

Tipologia del documento
Tesi di dottorato
De Giglio, Andrea
Dottorato di ricerca
Settore disciplinare
Settore concorsuale
Parole chiave
non-small cell lung cancer; immunotherapy; next-generation sequencing; liquid biopsy
Data di discussione
18 Marzo 2024

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