Protein-based nanomaterials as protein heterogeneous nucleants and structural studies on enzymes from two photosynthetic organisms

Fanti, Silvia (2023) Protein-based nanomaterials as protein heterogeneous nucleants and structural studies on enzymes from two photosynthetic organisms, [Dissertation thesis], Alma Mater Studiorum Università di Bologna. Dottorato di ricerca in Nanoscienze per la medicina e per l'ambiente, 35 Ciclo.
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Proteins, the most essential biological macromolecules, are involved in nearly every aspect of life. The elucidation of their three-dimensional structures through X-ray analysis has significantly contributed to our understanding of fundamental mechanisms in life processes. However, the obstacle of obtaining high-resolution protein crystals remains significant. Thus, searching for materials that can effectively induce nucleation of crystals is a promising and active field. This thesis work characterizes and prepares albumin nanoparticles as heterogeneous nucleants for protein crystallization. These stable Bovine Serum Albumin nanoparticles were synthesized via the desolvation method, purified efficiently, and characterized in terms of dimension, morphology, and secondary structure. The ability of BSA-NPs to induce macromolecule nucleation was tested on three model proteins, exhibiting significant results, with larger NPs inducing more nucleation. The second part of this work focuses on the structural study, mainly through X-ray crystallography, of five chloroplast and cytosolic enzymes involved in the fundamental cellular processes of two photosynthetic organisms, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Arabidopsis thaliana. The structures of three enzymes involved in the Calvin-Benson-Bassham Cycle, phosphoribulokinase, troseposphatisomerase, and ribulosiophosphate epimerase from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, were solved to investigate their catalytic and regulatory mechanisms. Additionally, the structure of nitrosylated-CrTPI made it possible to identify Cys14 as a target for nitrosylation, and the crystallographic structure of CrRPE was solved for the first time, providing insights into its catalytic and regulatory properties. Finally, the structure of S-nitrosoglutathione reductase, AtGSNOR, was compared with that of AtADH1, revealing differences in their catalytic sites. Overall, seven crystallographic structures, including partially oxidized CrPRK, CrPRK/ATP, CrPRK/ADP/Ru5P, CrTPI-nitrosylated, apo-CrRPE, apo-AtGSNOR, and AtADH1-NADH, were solved and are yet to be deposited in the PDB.

Tipologia del documento
Tesi di dottorato
Fanti, Silvia
Dottorato di ricerca
Settore disciplinare
Settore concorsuale
Parole chiave
Protein Crystallization, Protein Nanoparticles, Hetrogeneous Nucleation, X-ray Crystallography
Data di discussione
23 Giugno 2023

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