Biocombustibili liquidi per l'aviazione: valorizzazione del sottoprodotto biochar

Carlini, Carlotta (2023) Biocombustibili liquidi per l'aviazione: valorizzazione del sottoprodotto biochar, [Dissertation thesis], Alma Mater Studiorum Università di Bologna. Dottorato di ricerca in Beni culturali e ambientali, 35 Ciclo.
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Biochar is a carbonaceous material produced through pyrolysis of biomass. One promising application of biochar is phosphorus recovery from wastewater. Phosphorus is a vital nutrient for plant growth, but its use in fertilizers often leads to runoff or leaching. Wastewater treatment plants discharge large amounts of phosphorus-rich wastewater, contributing to eutrophication and ecological harm. Biochar can sorb phosphorus, retaining it in solid form. In this thesis, two composites made of biomass and dolomite or shells exhibited superior phosphate sorption compared to biochar alone, reaching up to 100% sorption. Biochar also finds use in soil remediation, specifically in cleaning up contaminated soil. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), which can be carcinogenic and toxic, can be present in soil. Biochar adsorb PAHs, preventing their leakage or bioaccumulation. Hetero-PAHs, a subclass of PAHs with nitrogen, sulfur, or oxygen atoms in their ring structures, are particularly challenging to degrade. Little is known about their behavior or sorption onto biochar. In this thesis, biochar and activated carbon were effective in immobilizing PAHs and hetero-PAHs in real soils, with rates of immobilization reaching 100%. Biochar performed equally or better than activated carbon, offering a cost-effective alternative due to its lower price. Biochar reduce of metal(loid)s mobility in soil. Metal(loid)s like lead, zinc, and arsenic can contaminate soil through industrial sources, agricultural runoff, and other pollution, and are toxic to plants and animals, rendering the soil unsuitable for agriculture. When biochar is added to contaminated soil, it binds to metal(loid)s, preventing leaching into the environment. A biomass-dolomite composite was compared to activated carbon for immobilizing metal(loid)s in contaminated soils. The composite generally outperformed activated carbon and exhibited the ability to immobilize arsenic. In summary, biochar shows promise for phosphorus recovery, soil remediation, and reducing the mobility of heavy metals, offering cost-effective and sustainable solutions to these environmental challenges.

Tipologia del documento
Tesi di dottorato
Carlini, Carlotta
Dottorato di ricerca
Settore disciplinare
Settore concorsuale
Parole chiave
biochar contaminated soil bioremediation heavy metals metalloid arsenic phosphorus nutrient recovery activated carbon hetero PAH PAH Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons
Data di discussione
10 Luglio 2023

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