Towards a sustainable approach for Cultural Heritage Conservation: developing micro-structured green materials and analytical protocols for their performance assessment

Ramacciotti, Francesca (2023) Towards a sustainable approach for Cultural Heritage Conservation: developing micro-structured green materials and analytical protocols for their performance assessment, [Dissertation thesis], Alma Mater Studiorum Università di Bologna. Dottorato di ricerca in Beni culturali e ambientali, 35 Ciclo.
Documenti full-text disponibili:
[img] Documento PDF (English) - Accesso riservato fino a 24 Maggio 2026 - Richiede un lettore di PDF come Xpdf o Adobe Acrobat Reader
Disponibile con Licenza: Creative Commons Attribution Non-commercial ShareAlike 4.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 4.0) .
Download (57MB) | Contatta l'autore


Cleaning is one of the most important and delicate procedures that are part of the restoration process. When developing new systems, it is fundamental to consider its selectivity towards the layer to-be-removed, non-invasiveness towards the one to-be-preserved, its sustainability and non-toxicity. Besides assessing its efficacy, it is important to understand its mechanism by analytical protocols that strike a balance between cost, practicality, and reliable interpretation of results. In this thesis, the development of cleaning systems based on the coupling of electrospun fabrics (ES) and greener organic solvents is proposed. Electrospinning is a versatile technique that allows the production of micro/nanostructured non-woven mats, which have already been used as absorbents in various scientific fields, but to date, not in the restoration field. The systems produced proved to be effective for the removal of dammar varnish from paintings, where the ES not only act as solvent-binding agents but also as adsorbents towards the partially solubilised varnish due to capillary rise, thus enabling a one-step procedure. They have also been successfully applied for the removal of spray varnish from marble substrates and wall paintings. Due to the materials' complexity, the procedure had to be adapted case-by-case and mechanical action was still necessary. According to the spinning solution, three types of ES mats have been produced: polyamide 6,6, pullulan and pullulan with melanin nanoparticles. The latter, under irradiation, allows for a localised temperature increase accelerating and facilitating the removal of less soluble layers (e.g. reticulated alkyd-based paints). All the systems produced, and the mock-ups used were extensively characterised using multi-analytical protocols. Finally, a monitoring protocol and image treatment based on photoluminescence macro-imaging is proposed. This set-up allowed the study of the removal mechanism of dammar varnish and semi-quantify its residues. These initial results form the basis for optimising the acquisition set-up and data processing.

Tipologia del documento
Tesi di dottorato
Ramacciotti, Francesca
Dottorato di ricerca
Settore disciplinare
Settore concorsuale
Parole chiave
conservation; restoration; cleaning; paintings; electrospinning; graffiti; sustainability; photoluminescence; macro-imaging; analytical protocols.
Data di discussione
19 Giugno 2023

Altri metadati

Gestione del documento: Visualizza la tesi