Traditional risk factors and lifetime risk of acute coronary events

Cenko, Edina (2023) Traditional risk factors and lifetime risk of acute coronary events, [Dissertation thesis], Alma Mater Studiorum Università di Bologna. Dottorato di ricerca in Scienze cardio nefro toraciche, 35 Ciclo.
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Objective: To investigate the association between the four traditional coronary heart disease (CHD) risk factors (hypertension, smoking, hypercholesterolemia, and diabetes) and outcomes of first ACS. Methods: Data were drawn from the ISACS Archives. The study participants consisted of 70953 patients with first ACS, but without prior CHD. Primary outcomes were patient’ age at hospital presentation and 30-day all-cause mortality. The risk ratios for mortality among subgroups were calculated using a balancing strategy by inverse probability weighting. Trends were evaluated by Pearson's correlation coefficient (r). Results: For fatal ACS (n=6097), exposure to at least one traditional CHD-risk factor ranged from 77.6% in women to 74.5% in men. The presence of all four CHD-risk factors significantly decreased the age at time of ACS event and death by nearly half a decade compared with the absence of any traditional risk factors in both women (from 67.1±12.0 to 61.9±10.3 years; r=-0.089, P<0.001) and men (from 62.8±12.2 to 58.9±9.9 years; r=-0.096, P<0.001). By contrast, there was an inverse association between the number of traditional CHD-risk factors and 30-day mortality. The mortality rates in women ranged from 7.7% with four traditional CHD-risk factors to 16.3% with no traditional risk factors (r=0.073, P<0.001). The corresponding rates in men were 4.8% and 11.5% (r=0.078, P<0.001), respectively. The risk ratios among individuals with at least one CHD-risk factors vs. those with no traditional risk factors were 0.72 (95%CI:0.65-0.79) in women and 0.64 (95%CI:0.59-0.70) in men. This association was consistent among patient subgroups managed with guideline-recommended therapeutic options. Conclusions: The vast majority of patients who die for ACS have traditional CHD-risk factor exposure. Patients with CHD-risk factors die much earlier in life, but they have a lower relative risk of 30-day mortality than those with no traditional CHD-risk factors, even in the context of equitable evidence‐based treatments after hospital admission.

Tipologia del documento
Tesi di dottorato
Cenko, Edina
Dottorato di ricerca
Settore disciplinare
Settore concorsuale
Parole chiave
acute coronary syndrome, risk factors, outcomes, mortality
Data di discussione
7 Luglio 2023

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