Toward an understanding of the atmospheric forcing uncertainties in the Mediterranean Sea

Ghani, Mahmud Hasan (2023) Toward an understanding of the atmospheric forcing uncertainties in the Mediterranean Sea, [Dissertation thesis], Alma Mater Studiorum Università di Bologna. Dottorato di ricerca in Il futuro della terra, cambiamenti climatici e sfide sociali, 35 Ciclo. DOI 10.48676/unibo/amsdottorato/10762.
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The thesis has extensively investigated for the first time the statistical distributions of atmospheric surface variables and heat fluxes for the Mediterranean Sea. After retrieving a 30-year atmospheric analysis dataset, we have captured the spatial patterns of the probability distribution of the relevant atmospheric variables for ocean atmospheric forcing: wind components (U,V), wind amplitude, air temperature (T2M), dewpoint temperature (D2M) and mean sea-level pressure (MSL-P). The study reveals that a two-parameter PDF is not a good fit for T2M, D2M, MSL-P and wind components (U,V) and a three parameter skew-normal PDF is better suited. Such distribution captures properly the data asymmetric tails (skewness). After removing the large seasonal cycle, we show the quality of the fit and the geographic structure of the PDF parameters. It is found that the PDF parameters vary between different regions, in particular the shape (connected to the asymmetric tails) and the scale (connected to the spread of the distribution) parameters cluster around two or more values, probably connected to the different dynamics that produces the surface atmospheric fields in the Mediterranean basin. Moreover, using the atmospheric variables, we have computed the air-sea heat fluxes for a 20-years period and estimated the net heat budget over the Mediterranean Sea. Interestingly, the higher resolution analysis dataset provides a negative heat budget of –3 W/m2 which is within the acceptable range for the Mediterranean Sea heat budget closure. The lower resolution atmospheric reanalysis dataset(ERA5) does not satisfy the heat budget closure problem pointing out that a minimal resolution of the atmospheric forcing is crucial for the Mediterranean Sea dynamics. The PDF framework developed in this thesis will be the basis for a future ensemble forecasting system that will use the statistical distributions to create perturbations of the atmospheric ocean forcing.

Tipologia del documento
Tesi di dottorato
Ghani, Mahmud Hasan
Dottorato di ricerca
Settore disciplinare
Settore concorsuale
Parole chiave
PDF, atmospheric forcing, mediterranean sea, air-sea heat flux
Data di discussione
19 Giugno 2023

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