Early-stage deformation localisation in thrust systems: new perspectives from carbonates in the Italian Southern Alps and Oman Mountains

Zuccari, Costantino (2023) Early-stage deformation localisation in thrust systems: new perspectives from carbonates in the Italian Southern Alps and Oman Mountains, [Dissertation thesis], Alma Mater Studiorum Università di Bologna. Dottorato di ricerca in Scienze della terra, della vita e dell'ambiente, 35 Ciclo.
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This thesis investigates mechanisms and boundary conditions that steer the early localisation of deformation and strain in carbonate multilayers involved in thrust systems, under shallow and mid-crustal conditions. Much is already understood about deformation localisation, but some key points remain loosely constrained. They encompass i) the understanding of which structural domains can preserve evidence of early stages of tectonic shortening, ii) the recognition of which mechanisms assist deformation during these stages and iii) the identification of parameters that actually steer the beginning of localisation. To clarify these points, the thesis presents the results of an integrated, multiscale and multi-technique structural study that relied on field and laboratory data to analyse the structural, architectural, mineralogical and geochemical features that govern deformation during compressional tectonics. By focusing on two case studies, the Eastern Southern Alps (northern Italy), where deformation is mainly brittle, and the Oman Mountains (northeastern Oman), where ductile deformation dominates, the thesis shows that the deformation localisation is steered by several mechanisms that mutually interact at different stages during compression. At shallow crustal conditions, derived conceptual and numerical models show that both inherited (e.g., stratigraphic) and acquired (e.g., structural) features play a key role in steering deformation and differentiating the seismic behaviour of the multilayer succession. At the same time, at deeper crustal conditions, strain localises in narrow domains in which fluids, temperature, shear strain and pressure act together during the development of the internal fabric and the chemical composition of mylonitic shear zones, in which localisation took place under high-pressure (HP) and low-temperature (LT) conditions. In particular, results indicate that those shear zones acted as “sheltering structural capsules” in which peculiar processes can happen and where the results of these processes can be successively preserved even over hundreds of millions of years.

Tipologia del documento
Tesi di dottorato
Zuccari, Costantino
Dottorato di ricerca
Settore disciplinare
Settore concorsuale
Parole chiave
Thrust tectonics; Mechanical stratigraphy; Seismic-aseismic; Carbonates; Southern Alps; Oman Mountains; Deformation-strain localisation; Folding-faulting transition; Calcite-aragonite transition; Geological mapping; Raman spectroscopy; Numerical modelling; U-Pb dating
Data di discussione
6 Luglio 2023

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