Laser cladding and its potential to reduce particulate matter emissions from the automotive and locomotive sector

Ali, Nashit (2023) Laser cladding and its potential to reduce particulate matter emissions from the automotive and locomotive sector, [Dissertation thesis], Alma Mater Studiorum Università di Bologna. Dottorato di ricerca in Meccanica e scienze avanzate dell'ingegneria, 35 Ciclo. DOI 10.48676/unibo/amsdottorato/10526.
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Laser Cladding (LC) is an emerging technology which is used both for coating applications as well as near-net shape fabrication. Despite its significant advantages, such as low dilution and metallurgical bond with the substrate, it still faces issues such as process control and repeatability, which restricts the extension to its applications. The following thesis evaluates the LC technology and tests its potential to be applied to reduce particulate matter emissions from the automotive and locomotive sector. The evaluation of LC technology was carried out for the deposition of multi-layer and multi-track coatings. 316L stainless steel coatings were deposited to study the minimisation of geometric distortions in thin-walled samples. Laser power, as well as scan strategy, were the main variables to achieve this goal. The use of constant power, reduction at successive layers, a control loop control system, and two different scan strategies were studied. The closed-loop control system was found to be practical only when coupled with the correct scan strategy for the deposition of thin walls. Three overlapped layers of aluminium bronze were deposited onto a structural steel pipe for multitrack coatings. The effect of laser power, scan speed and hatch distance on the final geometry of coating were studied independently, and a combined parameter was established to effectively control each geometrical characteristic (clad width, clad height and percentage of dilution). LC was then applied to coat commercial GCI brake discs with tool steel. The optical micrography showed that even with preheating, the cracks that originated from the substrate towards the coating were still present. The commercial brake discs emitted airborne particles whose concentration and size depended on the test conditions used for simulation in the laboratory. The contact of LC cladded wheel with rail emitted significantly less ultra-fine particles while maintaining the acceptable values of coefficient of friction.

Tipologia del documento
Tesi di dottorato
Ali, Nashit
Dottorato di ricerca
Settore disciplinare
Settore concorsuale
Parole chiave
Laser Cladding, Direct Energy Deposition, Thin Wall Deposition, Empirical Statistical Model, Non-Exhaust Emissions, Particulate Matter, Nano-particles, Rail-Wheel Contact, Friction, Wear, Airborne Particles Emission
Data di discussione
15 Giugno 2023

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