Role of non-coding RNA alterations in melanoma

Broseghini, Elisabetta (2022) Role of non-coding RNA alterations in melanoma, [Dissertation thesis], Alma Mater Studiorum Università di Bologna. Dottorato di ricerca in Oncologia, ematologia e patologia, 34 Ciclo. DOI 10.48676/unibo/amsdottorato/10306.
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Cutaneous melanoma (CM) is a potentially lethal form of skin cancer and its most important histopathologic factor for staging is Breslow thickness (BT). Its correct determination is fundamental for pathologists. A deeper understanding of the molecular processes guiding CM pathogenesis could improve diagnosis, treatment and prognosis. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play a key role in CM biology. The firs aim was to investigate miRNA expression in reference to BT assessment. We found that the combined miRNA expression of miR-21-5p and miR-146a-5p above or below 1.5 was significantly associated with overall survival and successfully identified all superficially spreading melanoma (SSM) patients with relapsing suggesting that the combined assessment of these miRNAs expression could aid in SSM staging. Secondly, we focus on multiple primary melanoma (MPM) patients, which develop multiple primary melanomas in their lifetime, and represent a model of high-risk CM occurrence. We explored the miRNome of single CM and MPM: CM and MPM present several dysregulated miRNAs, including key miRNAs involved in epithelial-mesenchymal transition. A different miRNA profile was observed between 1st and 2nd melanoma from the same patient. MiRNA target analysis revealed a more differentiated and less invasive status of MPMs compared to CMs. This characterization of the miRNA regulatory network of MPMs highlights molecular features differentiating this subtype from CM. Recently, NGS experiments revealed the existence of miRNA variants (isomiRs) with different length and sequence. We identified a shorter 3’isoform as tenfold over-represented compared to the canonical form of miR-125a-5p. Target analysis revealed that miRNA shortening could change the pattern of target gene regulation. Finally, we study miRNA and isomiR dysregulation in benign nevi (BN) and CM and in CM and melanoma metastasis. The reported non-random dysregulation of specific isomiRs contributes to the understanding of the complex melanoma pathogenesis and serves as the basis for further functional studies.

Tipologia del documento
Tesi di dottorato
Broseghini, Elisabetta
Dottorato di ricerca
Settore disciplinare
Settore concorsuale
Parole chiave
Cutaneous Melanoma; microRNAs; isomiRs
Data di discussione
21 Giugno 2022

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