Towards Unstructured Knowledge Integration in Natural Language Processing

Ruggeri, Federico (2022) Towards Unstructured Knowledge Integration in Natural Language Processing, [Dissertation thesis], Alma Mater Studiorum Università di Bologna. Dottorato di ricerca in Computer science and engineering, 34 Ciclo. DOI 10.48676/unibo/amsdottorato/10229.
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In the last decades, Artificial Intelligence has witnessed multiple breakthroughs in deep learning. In particular, purely data-driven approaches have opened to a wide variety of successful applications due to the large availability of data. Nonetheless, the integration of prior knowledge is still required to compensate for specific issues like lack of generalization from limited data, fairness, robustness, and biases. In this thesis, we analyze the methodology of integrating knowledge into deep learning models in the field of Natural Language Processing (NLP). We start by remarking on the importance of knowledge integration. We highlight the possible shortcomings of these approaches and investigate the implications of integrating unstructured textual knowledge. We introduce Unstructured Knowledge Integration (UKI) as the process of integrating unstructured knowledge into machine learning models. We discuss UKI in the field of NLP, where knowledge is represented in a natural language format. We identify UKI as a complex process comprised of multiple sub-processes, different knowledge types, and knowledge integration properties to guarantee. We remark on the challenges of integrating unstructured textual knowledge and bridge connections with well-known research areas in NLP. We provide a unified vision of structured knowledge extraction (KE) and UKI by identifying KE as a sub-process of UKI. We investigate some challenging scenarios where structured knowledge is not a feasible prior assumption and formulate each task from the point of view of UKI. We adopt simple yet effective neural architectures and discuss the challenges of such an approach. Finally, we identify KE as a form of symbolic representation. From this perspective, we remark on the need of defining sophisticated UKI processes to verify the validity of knowledge integration. To this end, we foresee frameworks capable of combining symbolic and sub-symbolic representations for learning as a solution.

Tipologia del documento
Tesi di dottorato
Ruggeri, Federico
Dottorato di ricerca
Settore disciplinare
Settore concorsuale
Parole chiave
unstructured knowledge integration, deep learning, machine learning, natural language processing
Data di discussione
23 Giugno 2022

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