Sex differences in coronary artery disease severity and mortality: the impact of conventional cardiovascular risk factors

Bergami, Maria (2022) Sex differences in coronary artery disease severity and mortality: the impact of conventional cardiovascular risk factors, [Dissertation thesis], Alma Mater Studiorum Università di Bologna. Dottorato di ricerca in Scienze cardio nefro toraciche, 34 Ciclo. DOI 10.48676/unibo/amsdottorato/10022.
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It is still unknown whether traditional risk factors may have a sex specific impact on the severity of coronary artery disease (CAD) and subsequent mortality in acute coronary syndromes (ACS). We identified 14 793 patients who underwent coronary angiography for acute coronary syndromes in the ISACS-TC (NCT01218776) registry from 2010 to 2019. The main outcome measure was the association between conventional risk factors and severity of CAD and its relationship with 30-day mortality. Risk ratios (RRs) and 95% CIs were calculated from the ratio of the absolute risks of women versus men using inverse probability of weighting. Severity of disease was categorized as obstructive (≥50% stenosis) versus nonobstructive CAD, specifically Ischemia and No Obstructive Coronary Artery disease (INOCA) and Myocardial Infarction with Non obstructive Coronary Arteries (MINOCA). The RR ratio for obstructive CAD in women versus men among people without diabetes mellitus was 0.49(95%CI,0.41–0.60) and among those with diabetes mellitus was 0.89(95% CI,0.62–1.29), with an interaction by diabetes mellitus status of P =0.002. Exposure to smoking shifted the RR ratios from 0.50 (95% CI, 0.41–0.61) in nonsmokers to 0.75 (95%CI, 0.54–1.03) in current smokers, with an interaction by smoking status of P=0.018. There were no significant sex-related interactions with hypercholesterolemia and hypertension. Women with obstructive CAD had higher 30-day mortality rates than men (RR, 1.75; 95% CI, 1.48–2.07). No sex differences in mortality were observed in patients with INOCA/MINOCA. In conclusion, obstructive CAD in women signifies a higher risk for mortality compared with men. Current smoking and diabetes mellitus disproportionally increase the risk of obstructive CAD in women. Achieving the goal of improving cardiovascular health in women still requires intensive efforts toward further implementation of lifestyle and treatment interventions.

Tipologia del documento
Tesi di dottorato
Bergami, Maria
Dottorato di ricerca
Settore disciplinare
Settore concorsuale
Parole chiave
Acute coronary syndromes, risk factors, MINOCA, sex differences
Data di discussione
8 Aprile 2022

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