Tolleranza a Monilinia Laxa nel corso dell'accrescimento delle pesche e variazione dell'espressione genica

Zubini, Paola (2008) Tolleranza a Monilinia Laxa nel corso dell'accrescimento delle pesche e variazione dell'espressione genica, [Dissertation thesis], Alma Mater Studiorum Università di Bologna. Dottorato di ricerca in Patologia vegetale, 20 Ciclo. DOI 10.6092/unibo/amsdottorato/1000.
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Brown rot caused by Monilinia laxa and Monilinia fructigena is considered one of the most important diseases affecting Prunus species. Although some losses can result from the rotten fruits in the orchard, most of the damage is caused to fruits during the post-harvest phase. Several studies reported that brown rot incidence during fruit development highly varies; it was found that at a period corresponding to the the pit hardening stage, fruit susceptibility drastically decreases, to be quickly restored afterwards. However the molecular basis of this phenomenon is still not well understood. Furthermore, no difference in the rot incidence was found between wound and un-wound fruits, suggesting that resistance associated more to a specifc biochemical response of the fruit, rather than to a higher mechanical resistance. So far, the interaction Monilinia-peach was analyzed through chemical approaches. In this study, a bio-molecular approach was undertaken in order to reveal alteration in gene expression associated to the variation of susceptibility. In this thesis three different methods for gene expression analysis were used to analyze the alterations in gene expression occurring in peach fruits during the pit hardening stage, in a period encompassing the temporary change in Monilinia susceptibility: real time PCR, microarray and cDNA AFLP techniques. In 2005, peach fruits (cv.K2) were weekly harvested during a 19-week long-period, starting from the fourth week after full bloom, until full maturity. At each sampling time, three replicates of 5 fruits each were dipped in the M.laxa conidial suspension or in distilled water, as negative control. The fruits were maintained at room temperature for 3 hours; afterwards, they were peeled with a scalpel; the peel was immediately frozen in liquid nitrogen and transferred to -80 °C until use. The degree of susceptibility of peach fruit to the pathogen was determined on 3 replicates of 20 fruits each, as percentage of infected fruits, after one week at 20 °C. Real time PCR analysis was performed to study the variation in expression of those genes encoding for the enzymes of the phenylpropanoid pathway (phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), chalcone synthase (CHS), cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (C4H), leucoanthocyanidine reductase (LAR), hydroxycinnamoyl CoA quinate hydroxycinnamoyl transferase (HQT) and of the jasmonate pathway, such as lipoxygenase (LOX), both involved in the production of important defense compounds. Alteration in gene expression was monitored on fruit samples of a period encompassing the pit hardening stage and the corresponding temporary resistance to M.laxa infections, weekly, from the 6thto the 12th week after full bloom (AFB) inoculated with M. laxa or mock-inoculated. The data suggest a critical change in the expression level of the phenylpropanoid pathway from the 7th to the 8th week AFB; such change could be directly physiologically associated to the peach growth and it could indirectly determine the decrease of susceptibility of peach fruit to Monilinia rot during the subsequent weeks. To investigate on the transcriptome variation underneath the temporary loss of susceptibility of peach fruits to Monilinia rot, the microarray and the cDNA AFLP techniques were used. The samples harvested on the 8th week AFB (named S, for susceptible ones) and on the 12th week AFB (named R, for resistant ones) were compared, both inoculated or mock-inoculated. The microarray experiments were carried out at the University of Padua (Dept. of Environmental Agronomy and Crop Science), using the μPEACH1.0 microarray together with the suited protocols. The analysis showed that 30 genes (corresponding to the 0.6% of the total sequences (4806) contained in the μPeach1.0 microarray) were found up-regulated and 31 ( 0.6%) down regulated in RH vs. SH fruits. On the other hand, 20 genes (0.4%) were shown to be up-regulated and 13 (0.3%) down-regulated in the RI vs. SI fruit. No genes were found differentially expressed in the mock-inoculated resistant fruits (RH) vs. the inoculated resistant ones (RI). Among the up-regulated genes an ATP sulfurylase, an heat shock protein 70, the major allergen Pru P1, an harpin inducing protein and S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase were found, conversely among the down-regulated ones, cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase, an histidine- containing phosphotransfer protein and the ferritin were found. The microarray experimental results and the data indirectly derived, were tested by Real Time PCR analysis. cDNA AFLP analysis was also performed on the same samples. 339 transcript derived fragments considered significant for Monilinia resistance, were selected, sequenced and classified. Genes potentially involved in cell rescue and defence were well represented (8%); several genes (12.1%) involved in the protein folding, post-transductional modification and genes (9.2%) involved in cellular transport were also found. A further 10.3% of genes were classified as involved in the metabolism of aminoacid, carbohydrate and fatty acid. On the other hand, genes involved in the protein synthesis (5.7%) and in signal transduction and communication (5.7%) were found. Among the most interesting genes found differentially expressed between susceptible and resistant fruits, genes encoding for pathogenesis related (PR) proteins were found. To investigate on the association of Monilinia resistance and PR biological function, the major allergen Pru P1 (GenBank accession AM493970) and its isoform (here named Pru P2), were expressed in heterologous system and in vitro assayed for their anti-microbial activity. The ribonuclease activity of the recombinant Pru P1 and Pru P2 proteins was assayed against peach total RNA. As the other PR10 proteins, they showed a ribonucleolytic activity, that could be important to contrast pathogen penetration. Moreover Pru P1 and Pru P2 recombinant proteins were checked for direct antimicrobial activity. No inhibitory effect of Pru P1 or Pru P2 was detected against the selected fungi.

Tipologia del documento
Tesi di dottorato
Zubini, Paola
Dottorato di ricerca
Settore disciplinare
Settore concorsuale
Parole chiave
prunus persica monilinia laxa microarray cdna aflp pr proteins
Data di discussione
11 Aprile 2008

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